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-   -   Linux and migrating from HDD to SSD... (http://www.customerssuck.com/board/showthread.php?t=121314)

mjr 02-18-2019 11:25 AM

Linux and migrating from HDD to SSD...
 
Alright...here's what I want to do.

I have an Ubuntu Linux box here at my house. I want to upgrade it, because right now it's painfully slow.

I have been considering moving from HDD to SSD, but I don't want to lose any of my data or programs on my primary HDD.

Is there a (safe) way to set up my machine to use a SSD, and basically "copy over" all my data to the SSD?

I know that'll speed things up some, but I'm also going to upgrade the CPU, motherboard, and RAM.

RealUnimportant 02-18-2019 12:23 PM

As I understand it, an SSD shouldn't be any different to a HDD in terms of configuration or usage so you should be able to use whatever systems you're already used to to copy everything across.

My MBP has a 500GB SSD and I've never treated it any differently, nor has it appeared to work differently. I know that behind the scenes there's clever algorithms that work to ensure the same areas of the drive don't get "worn out" by distributing data writes, but it's all handled behind the curtains.

EricKei 02-18-2019 02:10 PM

Well, you could theoretically just Ghost the old drive over (assuming it's smaller than the new drive) buuuut: while you can just move your data over, with any OS, when changing your boot device, your best bet really is to reinstall your OS on the new drive, reinstall your programs, and then copy over whatever else you need.

mjr 02-18-2019 03:35 PM

Quote:

Quoth EricKei (Post 1377327)
Well, you could theoretically just Ghost the old drive over (assuming it's smaller than the new drive) buuuut: while you can just move your data over, with any OS, when changing your boot device, your best bet really is to reinstall your OS on the new drive, reinstall your programs, and then copy over whatever else you need.

That's a LOT of data and programs, though. I only have a 500GB primary drive on that machine (I believe), and I was thinking about buying a 1TB SSD.

I'd like to make it as painless as possible.

lordlundar 02-18-2019 04:52 PM

I thought we talked about this.

Yup: http://www.customerssuck.com/board/s...16#post1371316

And it's still applicable.

Find a mirroring/ghosting program
create the mirror image (preferably on a removable media)
format the new drive to the proper File Allocation Table
load the mirror on the new drive
confirm the mirrored drive works
scrub or retain the original.

mjr 02-18-2019 05:01 PM

Quote:

Quoth lordlundar (Post 1377332)
I thought we talked about this.

Yup: http://www.customerssuck.com/board/s...16#post1371316

And it's still applicable.

Find a mirroring/ghosting program
create the mirror image (preferably on a removable media)
format the new drive to the proper File Allocation Table
load the mirror on the new drive
confirm the mirrored drive works
scrub or retain the original.

Cool. I had completely forgotten that I asked about this before.

EricKei 02-18-2019 07:25 PM

lundar - question: When ghosting/mirroring a hard drive in the past, it's been my experience that any sectors marked "bad" on the old drive will remain marked as "bad/do not use" on the new one. Is this the case on linux? Also, don't HDDs and SSD's store data in fundamentally different ways? Would this have an impact when mirroring?

mjr - What lundar said :) You might wanna consider some housekeeping first (e.g. file/drive integrity checks, de-duping checks, spyware scans, cleaning out temp directories, uninstalling anything you no longer use, old save game folders for stuff you don't play anymore, old video/audio files you don't need, etc) just to reduce the amount of sheer bulk in files that need to be moved over. You can always keep the old drive around as a backup, too.

lordlundar 02-19-2019 04:53 PM

Quote:

Quoth EricKei (Post 1377338)
lundar - question: When ghosting/mirroring a hard drive in the past, it's been my experience that any sectors marked "bad" on the old drive will remain marked as "bad/do not use" on the new one. Is this the case on linux? Also, don't HDDs and SSD's store data in fundamentally different ways? Would this have an impact when mirroring?

For the first question, I'm not sure. I have not dealt with mirroring on Linux myself though reading through the procedure is the same.

As for the second, the differences are hardware based and largely irrelevant. What needs to be identical is the File Allocation Table format as that is software based and is what determines how the information is stored and retrieved on a software scale. How it's stored on the drive physically is a matter for the control board which interprets access requests and data transmissions between the drive and the system.

csquared 02-19-2019 07:55 PM

I wouldn't bother with a 1TB SSD. That will get expensive.

I have a 126GB SSD that has my OS and apps on it. I then have a pair of 1TB HDDs, mirrored, for /home, where I keep all my data. I use LVM for the mirroring.

As you didn't say which distro you are using. Each has it's own quirks.

Linux has all the utilities you need to copy the drive. How you do it depends on a number of things. Bare partitions or Logical Volume Management (LVM) Do you want to move to LVM? Do you want to move to something like what I have?

Short description:
Layout your partitions on the new drive
Install boot block
Copy file from - to each partition.
Swap drives New drive need to be at the same device location as old was. i.e. /dev/sda
Boot to new drive.

EricKei - Usually not. Block relocation is usually handled at the drive. If you have used all your spare blocks and the file system is now reallocating, then a volume/block level copy will copy the flags. A file level copy won't.

mjr 02-20-2019 10:47 AM

Quote:

Quoth csquared (Post 1377361)
I wouldn't bother with a 1TB SSD. That will get expensive.

As you didn't say which distro you are using. Each has it's own quirks.

Linux has all the utilities you need to copy the drive. How you do it depends on a number of things. Bare partitions or Logical Volume Management (LVM) Do you want to move to LVM? Do you want to move to something like what I have?

I'm using Ubuntu, latest Desktop version.

All I really want to do is take everything on my HDD and copy it to a SSD, and have it work.

Of course, since my Linux computer is so slow right now in its setup, simply upgrading the processor, RAM, and motherboard may make it sufficiently fast for me.

mjr 02-20-2019 01:09 PM

Quote:

Quoth csquared (Post 1377361)
I wouldn't bother with a 1TB SSD. That will get expensive.

Terabyte SSDs are getting relatively cheap. HuevoNuevo has 1TB SSDs starting at $102. If you want them sold through but not by HuevoNuevo, they start at $63.

Of course, I don't know how good they are...

csquared 02-21-2019 01:20 AM

Wow. They have come down in price. I paid that for my 126GB SSD a few years ago. I checked NewEgg, and saw the high end brands at under $150 for a 1TB SSD.

I withdraw my early statements.

I would recommend that you mirror the data to another SSD or make backups every night. SSDs are not as forgiving as HDDs when they fail.

mjr 02-21-2019 11:23 AM

Quote:

Quoth csquared (Post 1377419)
I would recommend that you mirror the data to another SSD or make backups every night. SSDs are not as forgiving as HDDs when they fail.

Your last sentence here makes me think I should stick with the HDD instead of moving to a SSD -- at least for now.

Buzzard 02-21-2019 05:32 PM

SSDs are usually pretty stable. They DO eventually ...wear out. The individual memory locations can handle unlimited READs, but only so many WRITEs. Memory locations typically only fail during a write operation, which gets noticed by the drive. As each portion starts failing, the drive will remap to spares as available, then start shrinking in size reported to the system. When a drive starts shrinking, it's time to get the replacement.
With traditional HDDs, everything is on a spinning magnetic-coated platter. Any physical defect/damage can start creeping out from that point. Information can be lost from any point, regardless of being used or not.

Now as to keeping the SSD healthy, as above, they are great for FAST operations, and can read unlimited times. Most normal operation is just fine. What WILL eat a SSD early is write-heavy operations. Putting virtual memory (swap file, for some of us older hands) on a SSD isn't such a good thing, and defragging an SSD is not needed, period.
Traditional HDDs don't really wear out on read/write operations, so putting the virtual memory THERE would be the good thing.

Nightly backups... ??? Is this for a major business with critical daily transactions running through it?

EricKei 02-22-2019 02:57 AM

Quote:

Quoth lordlundar (Post 1377359)
For the first question, I'm not sure. I have not dealt with mirroring on Linux myself though reading through the procedure is the same.

Mkay. Note that I'm talking about a direct "ghost" from one drive to the other -- NOT setting up partitions, OS, etc ahead of time, but a literal, old-fashioned bit-for-bit clone of the drive directly from OldDrive:> to NewDrive:> ... It seems this is not being done here, so *whew* ^_^

Quote:

Quoth csquared (Post 1377419)
Wow. They have come down in price. I paid that for my 126GB SSD a few years ago.

Same here. Good to hear they're getting down to reasonable prices.

TheSHAD0W 02-22-2019 11:59 AM

Did you get it transferred over?

The way you should do it is download the bootable version of Gparted. First, resize the partitions on your HD down so they'll fit on the SSD. (May not be applicable if you get a big SSD. You may need to move data off the drive too.) Then you can copy the partitions over to the SSD, and make the boot partition bootable.

Naaman 02-23-2019 06:11 PM

Quote:

Quoth Buzzard (Post 1377445)
SSDs are usually pretty stable. They DO eventually ...wear out. The individual memory locations can handle unlimited READs, but only so many WRITEs. Memory locations typically only fail during a write operation, which gets noticed by the drive. As each portion starts failing, the drive will remap to spares as available, then start shrinking in size reported to the system. When a drive starts shrinking, it's time to get the replacement.
With traditional HDDs, everything is on a spinning magnetic-coated platter. Any physical defect/damage can start creeping out from that point. Information can be lost from any point, regardless of being used or not.

Now as to keeping the SSD healthy, as above, they are great for FAST operations, and can read unlimited times. Most normal operation is just fine. What WILL eat a SSD early is write-heavy operations. Putting virtual memory (swap file, for some of us older hands) on a SSD isn't such a good thing, and defragging an SSD is not needed, period.
Traditional HDDs don't really wear out on read/write operations, so putting the virtual memory THERE would be the good thing.

Nightly backups... ??? Is this for a major business with critical daily transactions running through it?

When I get asked;

SSD (or NVMe if you want insanly fast) is for your OS and any software that you use often and want to ensure it runs fast as well. Get one that's larger than you need because a) Crap expands b) You have more room for the write levelling to use, prolonging the life of the 'disc'
It's worth thinking about a fresdh OS install and use you HDD as a second drive (that will still have all your data on it)
HDD is for everything else, Window can be set up to point all Library folders to this one. Obviously if you're using Linux you should be fine remembering to install and save stuff to here.
Backup your critical files to the cloud, there's tons of free options that you can use
You can also pick up large external HDDs cheap (or HDD & a caddy) for on-site backups.

As I'm the default tech support for my family I dropped 30 on a 'toaster' disk cloner as it's nice & easy. Drop both disk in and press button then walk away, just need to fiddle with the partitions once it's done.

SteeleDragon78 02-27-2019 03:39 AM

Quote:

Quoth Naaman (Post 1377515)
As I'm the default tech support for my family I dropped 30 on a 'toaster' disk cloner as it's nice & easy. Drop both disk in and press button then walk away, just need to fiddle with the partitions once it's done.

i recently used one of the toaster style disc cloners and had issues going from HDD to SSD, after the clone windows believed that the new SSD was actually the HDD, as did my defrag program. i dont beileve there would be a problem doing a HDD to HDD clone or a SSD to SSD clone. just my :2cents:

Naaman 02-28-2019 05:02 PM

Quote:

Quoth SteeleDragon78 (Post 1377622)
i recently used one of the toaster style disc cloners and had issues going from HDD to SSD, after the clone windows believed that the new SSD was actually the HDD, as did my defrag program. i dont beileve there would be a problem doing a HDD to HDD clone or a SSD to SSD clone. just my :2cents:

Yeah, the amusingly translated documentation was pretty clear that the source (original) disk has to be smaller than the clone (new), although it's very clear which slot is which and that it only works one way. It did come with some software so you could manage it all on Windows but it's not very good, I can only speak for the one I have though (and bit of a derail for a one-off upgrade)

My go-to site for utilities I'm going to use once a blue moon is EaseUS, you're able to do most things with the free versions, they ahve an nice GUI and it doesn't nag you to upgrade

lordlundar 02-28-2019 05:32 PM

If the manufacturer of both the HDD and the SSD are the same, you might to check their website for a drive management app. Western Digital for example has a free, albeit reduced functionality of Arconis TrueImage on their website. I had just a couple days ago used it to clone my HDD to a higher capacity one with no issues.

SteeleDragon78 03-01-2019 04:33 AM

Quote:

Quoth lordlundar (Post 1377690)
If the manufacturer of both the HDD and the SSD are the same, you might to check their website for a drive management app. Western Digital for example has a free, albeit reduced functionality of Arconis TrueImage on their website. I had just a couple days ago used it to clone my HDD to a higher capacity one with no issues.

sadly, the drives were from different manufacturers. The HDD was a WD while the SDD was Sandisk. I'm still looking for a good solution for m.2 drives, may have found one in a raspberry pi hat, but i havn't had a chance to test it yet.

Naaman 03-01-2019 04:33 PM

Quote:

Quoth SteeleDragon78 (Post 1377717)
sadly, the drives were from different manufacturers. The HDD was a WD while the SDD was Sandisk. I'm still looking for a good solution for m.2 drives, may have found one in a raspberry pi hat, but i havn't had a chance to test it yet.

What are the problems you're running into? I'm intrigued now :p

Nunavut Pants 03-02-2019 12:05 AM

Quote:

Quoth SteeleDragon78 (Post 1377717)
sadly, the drives were from different manufacturers. The HDD was a WD while the SDD was Sandisk.

Check for new updates. WD bought Sandisk a few years ago; my wife worked for them at the time! They may now have compatibility tools.

SteeleDragon78 03-04-2019 05:12 AM

Quote:

Quoth Naaman (Post 1377742)
What are the problems you're running into? I'm intrigued now :p

The cloner i bought has 2 SATA3 slots, and an option for "one button cloning", its essentially an offline clone of the drive in slot A to slot B. I cannot be certain about the type of copy, if it is a bit for bit clone or just a hardware driven mass copy. Regardless, when i fired up the machine with the new SSD, windows showed the model and serial of the HDD rather than the SSD in device manager, and in the disc management section of admin tools.

Naaman 03-07-2019 10:57 PM

Not sure what type of copy it does and I don't think I've run into that problem.
Does it identify correctly in the BIOS\UEFI and have you looked at the drive in a partition manager?

Personally, I'd verify the old HDD is still fine and boots into Windows then with the SSD plugged in I'd try deleting the disk and IDE\ATA controllers from Device manager and reboot, making sure you've got the drivers for them. Worst case you can just clone the SSD from the HDD again...

SteeleDragon78 03-08-2019 02:40 AM

I just nuked it via gpartd (the SSD) and did a fresh install, then copied the needed folders over. was actually faster than the clone. i mainly picked it up for extracting user data for my freelancing. I considered using it for a freezer recovery, but its been really humid lately and i was worried about frost ingress.


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